Vitamins for athletes – nutrients that support the growth of muscle tissue, increase the “effectiveness” of training, reduce the period of rehabilitation after intense exercise, slow down the development of pain in the muscles, reduce anxiety during the competition. In addition, they prevent the occurrence of hormonal dysfunctions, improve blood circulation in the brain, activate the synthesis of enzymes and neurotransmitters.
Consider the main nutrients that are important for athletes to drink, their functions, popular vitamin complexes.
Essential Vitamins for Athletes
Vitamins play a paramount role in maintaining all biochemical reactions in the human body. Considering that under the influence of physical stress, the metabolism is accelerated, it is important for athletes to consume an increased amount of essential substances.
List of nutrients for professional athletes:
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, calcium ascorbate). The main “regulator” of metabolism, without which a complete synthesis of steroid hormones is impossible. Organic vitamin C increases the absorption of protein structures, accelerates collagen production, regulates oxidation-reduction reactions, maintains high performance of the athlete, reduces the rehabilitation period after intense exercise. In addition, the substance “supplies” oxygen inside the cells, preventing their destruction and transformation into fat.
With increased physical exertion, it is important to consume at least 2000 milligrams of L-ascorbate per day (250 milligrams, 8 times a day). During the competition, a single dose of nutrient is increased to 350 milligrams.
Food sources – sauerkraut, cranberry, dogrose infusion, parsley.
Vitamin A (retinol, beta carotene, retinyl). Participates in the processes of deposition of glycogen (the main source of energy), improves utilization of protein structures, accelerates the regeneration of damaged tissues, increases the volume and density of muscles, stimulates collagen synthesis, regulates photoreception processes (light, twilight and color vision).
The daily rate for athletes ranges from 5 to 7 milligrams.
The main suppliers of nutrients are sour cream (homemade), yellow fruits and vegetables, eggs, and fish oil.
Vitamin E (tocotrienol, tocopherol). Protects cell membranes from destruction, increases endurance of an athlete (during exhausting workouts), stimulates the synthesis of sex hormones (estrogens, testosterone), accelerates the growth of relief muscles.
To improve athletic performance take 70 – 100 milligrams of tocopherol per day (courses).
Food sources – fruits (avocado, apricot, peach), nuts (walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts), berries (sea buckthorn, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries), vegetable oils (flax, camelina, cedar, olive, sesame),
Vitamin B1 (thiamine). The main substance for “pumping” muscles and increasing the “performance” of training. Thiamine improves the metabolism of amino acids, stimulates the production of thyroid hormones, is involved in the nervous system.
The daily requirement for thiamine varies in the range of 10 to 15 milligrams (for athletes).
Nutrient is contained in the shell of cereals, peanuts, walnuts, beans.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin). It regulates protein metabolism, accelerates glucose metabolism, stimulates energy production, and participates in the assimilation of hydrogen. This element is especially necessary for heavyweight athletes, because strength training it is intensively “burned.”
During periods of competition consume 10 – 20 milligrams of vitamin.
Riboflavin is a part of fermented milk products (cottage cheese, cheese, kefir), unpolished cereals (oatmeal, buckwheat, rice), eggs, nuts (almonds, walnuts), vegetables (tomatoes, cabbage, turnips).
Vitamin B3 (niacin). Accelerates the “supply” of energy to the muscles (during workouts), participates in the formation of hormones (estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, insulin), normalizes blood glucose levels, eliminates blood vessel spasms (reducing the risk of blood clots).
During periods of intense stress, at least 30 milligrams of niacin are consumed per day.
However, it is important not to overdo the ingestion of a substance, since its excess blocks the burning of subcutaneous fat.
Natural sources – mushrooms (black boletus, aspen mushrooms), peanuts (unroasted), natural coffee, spices (coriander, fennel, turmeric, nutmeg, oregano).
Vitamin B4 (Choline). The component of lecithin. Dissolves cholesterol on the walls of blood vessels, improves the cognitive functions of the brain (due to the recovery of the myelin sheaths of neurons), reduces nervous tension during competitions, normalizes lipid synthesis.
The daily dose for athletes – 1 – 3 milligrams.
The substance is part of egg yolks (soft-boiled), dates, cottage cheese (fat).
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). An indispensable nutrient for athletes, because it participates in the processes of muscle hypertrophy, protein utilization, amino acid synthesis, the formation of hormones and neurotransmitters.
The daily rate is 20 milligrams of an element per day.
Pyridoxine is found in eggs, seafood, avocado, brown rice, whole wheat bread, walnuts, flattened oats.
Vitamin B7 (biotin). Participates in the metabolism of protein structures, “controls” the absorption of fatty acids, accelerates the transformation of glucose into energy.
To maintain fitness, 0.5 milligram of biotin is consumed per day. With a lack of a substance in the body, the growth of muscle tissue slows down.
The substance is contained in potatoes, chicken yolk, cabbage, beans, nuts, cereals.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin). It improves the conduction of nerve impulses to muscle tissue, regulates carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and participates in the synthesis of spinal cord nerve fibers.
The need for cobalamin varies from 0.003 to 0.02 milligram per day. With a deficiency of the substance in the body, the athlete has chronic fatigue, deterioration of the muscle response, and nervous system disorders.
Natural sources of nutrient: dairy products, fish, eggs, unpolished grits.
To improve athletic performance, amino acid mixtures are introduced into the athlete’s diet. They not only increase endurance, but also accelerate a set of muscle mass. This is precisely the reason why the “jocks” to the protein diet are explained.
Amino Acids for Athletes
To accelerate the delivery of “building material” to the muscles, in addition to vitamin supplements, use amino acid complexes. These substances are used as “express” means for instant replenishment of the protein concentration in the tissues. This “effect” is explained by the rapid absorption (within 10–15 minutes) of amino acids into the blood (as opposed to protein shakes, the absorption of which takes 2 hours).
The main amino acids for the athlete:
Leucine. It supplies energy to the cells, strengthens bone tissue, prevents the destruction of protein structures, and is involved in the regeneration of muscle fibers.
Arginine. Stimulates the processing of adipose tissue into energy, improves blood flow to the muscles (the pamping effect), speeds up the metabolism, is involved in the production of sex hormones, reduces muscle pain, increases psychological endurance.
Isoleucine. Reduces the intensity of muscle destruction (during workouts), prolongs physical endurance, controls blood sugar levels, improves mental state, reduces anxiety during competitions.
Valin. Accelerates the recovery of muscle tissue, improves coordination of movements, stimulates collagen production, increases endurance of an athlete.
Taurine. Strengthens the nervous system, maintains visual acuity, reduces the intensity of muscle destruction after exercise, accelerates the absorption of protein, improves heart function, prevents the transformation of protein into adipose tissue.
Histidine. Stimulates the growth of relief muscles, accelerates the formation of white and red blood cells, reduces the risk of developing anemia of muscles, reduces the intensity of the destruction of soft fibers (during training).
Phenylalanine. It increases the regeneration of connective tissue (including tendons and ligaments), stimulates collagen production, and participates in the synthesis of norepinerphine (a hormone that transmits signals to the brain).
Glutamine. Improves the mental state of the athlete, stimulates protein metabolism, strengthens the immune system.